Paper maps are no longer available. Topographic maps of the sea floor. Detailed depth contours provide the size, shape and distribution of underwater features. The map serves as a tool for performing scientific, engineering, marine geophysical and environmental studies, that are required in the development of energy and marine resources. They may also be used by land-use planners, conservationists, oceanographers, marine geologists, and those interested in the coastal zone and the Outer Continental Shelf's OCS physical environment. Topographic maps of the sea floor, produced at a , scale that contain Loran-C rates, bottom sediment types and known bottom obstructions.
North Atlantic Ocean Map
Atlantic Ocean - Wikipedia
This super-detailed map of the ocean floor's topography is based on satellite measurements of subtle lumps on the ocean's surface. These lumps of water, which are subtle, low, and wide on the ocean's surface, are caused by the gravitational pull of underwater features like mountains and ridges. The map has more than twice the resolution of previous seafloor maps, and shows a plethora of never-before-seen features. These include thousands of volcanoes and what could be the ridge where two plates pulled apart to create the Gulf of Mexico. The map is part of new research published last week in Science. The visualization at the top of the page click here for a full screen view lets you play with the vertical exaggeration of both continental and subsea topography using the upper left drop-down menu. They might seem huge to us at ground level, but the planet's mountains and valleys are almost imperceptible from the vantage of space.
The deep ocean is generally considered to include the ocean below a transition known as the thermocline. The thermocline is the sharp temperature decrease that lies at the base of the surface mixed layer where waters are generally uniform in temperature as a result of convection. Deep-water masses are produced at the surface of the ocean and transported to depth via downwelling. Generally, downwelling occurs where the surface ocean is warm, or, rarely, unusually saline. Downwelling water travels along lines of equal density known as isopycnals and spreads out horizontally at the level where it is equal in density to the surrounding water mass.
Thermohaline circulation properly described as meridional overturning circulation of the world's oceans involves the flow of warm surface waters from the southern hemisphere into the North Atlantic. Water flowing northward becomes modified through evaporation and mixing with other water masses, leading to increased salinity. When this water reaches the North Atlantic it cools and sinks through convection, due to its decreased temperature and increased salinity resulting in increased density. CFCs are anthropogenic substances that enter the surface of the ocean from gas exchange with the atmosphere.